Ho chi minh city us consulate, vietnam air pollution

Ho đưa ra Minh đô thị (HCMC) is one of the cities in developing countries where many concentrations of air pollutants exceeded the Vietnam national technical regulation in ambient air unique including TSP, NOx, Ozone & CO. These high pollutant concentrations have destroyed the human health of people in HCMC. Many zones in HCMC can’t receive more air pollutants. The objectives of this research are: (i) Air chất lượng modeling over HCMC by using the TAPM-CTM system model by using a bottom up air emission inventory; và (ii) Study loading capactities of air pollutant emissions over Ho chi Minh City. Simulations of air pollution were conducted in Ho bỏ ra Minh đô thị (HCMC), the largest đô thị of Vietnam by using the TAPM-CTM model. The mã sản phẩm performance was evaluated using observed meteorological data at chảy Son Hoa station & air quality data at the Ho chi Minh city University of Science. The model is then applied to lớn simulate a retire 1-year period lớn determine the levels of air pollutants in HCMC in 2017, 2025 & 2030. The results show that the highest concentrations of CO, NO2, & O3 in 2017 exceeded the National technical regulation in ambient air unique (QCVN 05:2013) 1.5, 1.5, & 1.1 times, respectively. These values also will increase in 2025 và 2030 if the local government does not have any plan for the reduction of emissions, especially, SO2 in 2030 also will be 1.02 times higher than that in QCVN 05:2013. The emission zoning was initially studied by calculating và simulating the loading capacities of each pollutant based on the highest concentration & the National technical regulation in ambient air quality. The results show that the center of HCMC could not receive anymore the emission, even needs khổng lồ reduce half of the emission. Under the easterly prevailing wind in the dry season, the high pollution was more likely to lớn be experienced in the west of Ho đưa ra Minh. In contrast, the eastern regions were the upwind areas and the pollutants could transport to lớn the downwind sectors. It was recommended that the best strategy for emission control in HCMC is avoiding industrial and urban development in the upwind areas lớn achieve better air quality for both areas. In the case of necessity khổng lồ choose one area for development, the downwind sector is preferred. The results show that TAPM-CTM performed well as applied to lớn simulate the air unique in HCMC & is a promising tool lớn study the emission zoning.

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Ho đưa ra Minh city (HCMC), the largest city in Vietnam with its position as the political, economic, scientific and cultural center of the country, is located at 10o45′N & 106o45′E in the south-eastern region of Vietnam. HCMC’s economic growth rate has been skyrocketing in recent years. The population of HCMC is 8.6 million people, the number of private vehicles is about 9 million units. Currently, there are 19 manufacturing and industrial zones, 30 industrial clusters on an area of 1,900 ha, and numerous factories and enterprises located separately in HCMC1,2. All those activities could release a huge amount of air pollutants into the atmosphere.

Urbanization và economic development during the recent period in HCMC have caused numerous environmental & social issues3. Many air pollutants in HCMC exceeded the National technical regulation in ambient air quality (QCVN 05:2013, namely QCVN from now) including TSP, NOx, và CO1,4. These high pollutant concentrations were associated with an increase in the risk of human health in HCMC5,6,7,8. It is urgent to lớn determine the needed amount of emission reduction và the most polluted areas in the thành phố to build the best abatement strategies for the reduction of emission. This status has raised the concern of scientific communities và policymakers. The combination of scientists & the city’s government is essential to lớn make appropriate planning policies. The environment-responsive strategies for developing economics require a comprehensive understanding of the local environmental conditions. Studies of overall status và forecast of air pollution are very important khổng lồ implement these strategies. However, these studies in HCMC have still been patchy, quite dated9,10 and need khổng lồ be updated. In addition, the current emission in HCMC has not taken into account the pollutant loading capacities of the atmosphere with the specific condition of the city. Only when determining this capacity for each region, can policymakers be able lớn localize reasonable emission areas (defined as the emission zoning by us). Therefore, this study aims at (i) Air quality modeling over HCMC by using the TAPM-CTM system model by using a bottom up air emission inventory; and (ii) Study loading capactities of air pollutant emissions over Ho đưa ra Minh City.


Meteorological and air chất lượng modelling

The Air Pollution model (TAPM), an easy-to-use & fast-to-run mã sản phẩm which is a feasible tool for meteorological and air pollution simulations, was developed by Commonwealth Scientific và Industrial Research Organization - Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (CRISO) of Australia11. TAPM has meteorological và air pollution module, in which the consists of the former are parameterizations for cloud/rain microphysical processes, turbulence closure, urban/vegetative canopy, and soil, and radiative fluxes và those of the later are various sub-modules including the Eulerian Grid Module (EGM), the Lagrangian Particle Module (LPM), the Plume Rise Module (PRM) and the Building Wake Module (BWM). Detail descriptions of the model were described by Hurley et al. (2005 and 2008)11,12. For simulations that require complex chemical transformation, CRISO developed an enhanced version of TAPM referred to TAPM-CTM13. The advances of TAPM-CTM compared to lớn TAPM analyzed thoroughly in the study of Bang et al.14 in which the prognostic mã sản phẩm provides the meteorological fields that drive dispersion of emissions & pollutant concentrations in the chemical transport model CTM. The first version of TAPM model, developed by Peter Hurley et al., has been developing since 1999. This model was continuously improved khổng lồ version 4 in 2008 lớn fix the problems of the previous version. The validation of TAPM mã sản phẩm has been performed through several comparative studies. For example, the comparison between the simulation of air unique for the Port Phillip & the observed values at mornitoring stations of EPA Victotira, Australia15, between the silmulation of PM10 & the observed values at mornitoring station Christchurch, New Zealand16. In recent years, TAPM-CTM has been widey applied for simulating NO, NO2, and O3 in the Greater Metropolitan Region in New South Wales, Australia17,18,19,20,21. This model was applied in HCMC lớn simulate the photochemical smog in HCMC in 201814.

Input data

Input data of TAPM-CTM modeling system include two components: (i) the global meteorological data from The Australian Community Climate và Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS) which are available online and can be downloaded via CSIRO’s website, và (ii) air emission inventory data within the region under consideration.

Emission data that have been completed và published were used as input to the air chất lượng model1. A comprehensive of Emission Inventory (EI) in 2017 và emission forecast in 2025 & 2030 over HCMC including point, line, area, & biogenic sources were conducted in that study. For line sources, the EMISENS (EMIssion SENSitivity) model, a model combining the top-down and bottom-up approaches, was applied. For the other sources (point, area and biogenic sources), a emission factor approach và survey data, was used khổng lồ calculate air emission. The air emission forecast until 2030 was calculated by using the data of strategies và plans for the socio-economic development of HCMC in the period until 2030. The EI was calculated for NOx, SO2, CO, NMVOC, TSP, and CH4 with a temporal resolution of one hour & a spatial resolution of 2,5 km × 2,5 km. The total emission from four main sources of air pollutants in HCMC in 2017 và 2030 is presented in Table 1 1. In general, emission in 2030 are expected to lớn be significantly higher compared lớn 2017.


Modelling domains

Four domains were configured in this study (Fig. 1) including (i) the outer most tên miền D1 characterizing the south of Vietnam (800 km × 800 km), (ii) the wider tên miền D2 characterizing Mekong Delta (400 km × 400 km), (iii) the domain D3 characterizing HCMC & some neighboring provinces (200 km × 200 km), and (iv) the subdomain D4 characterizing the main part of HCMC (100 km × 100 km). Each domain was 40 by 40 grid with the resolution was 20, 10, 5, và 2.5 km for D1, D2, D3, and D4, respectively. The three outer domains (D1, D2, D3) only simulated meteorology, the interior domain name (D4) simulated both meteorology & chemical processes. The simulation results of the coarser revolution were the input data for the next inner domain. For instance, the simulation results of D1 were the meteorological boundary conditions for the D2. The kích thước of the inner-most domain (D4) was set to lớn be the same as the HCMC emission inventory domain. The meteorological grids must be greater or equal to the emission grids; therefore, the emission inventory tên miền was phối 90 km by 90 km with 35 grids & the grid resolution was 2.5 km.


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Model evaluation

Statistical measures for model evaluation were proposed by several researchers in order to lớn evaluate the TAPM model’s performance12 và this approach also was used in our study by comparing the modeled data with observations from the field. In which meteorological data at chảy Son Hoa station and air unique data at Nguyen Van Cu station were used to assess the TAPM và CTM model, respectively. More specifically, statistical parameters including Pearson correlation coefficient (R) between observed (O) và predicted (P) values, mean value, standard deviation, minimum value (min), và maximum value (max) were used in this study.

Loading capacties

A technical approach, modeling tool, was utilize to lớn calculate và simulate the loading capacities of each pollutant in HCMC. Based on emission inventories & optimization of maximum total emission, under the criterion that target pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites meet national standards, the loading capacities of each pollutant were determined. This approach was also applied lớn calculate atmospheric environmental capacities in several studies22.


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Figure 2 và Table 2 shows that the model predicted well the surface temperature with 1.0 and 1.4 oC difference in February và June, respectively. Figure 2 shows that the value R between simulation và monitoring for temperature 0.77 in February 2017 and 0.74 in June 2017 which is a good performance for temperature modeling. However, TAPM slightly underestimated the temperatures during the dry season but a little overestimated during the rainy season. This result also agreeded with the findings in Matthaios’s study in 2018 about the evaluation of TAPMP mã sản phẩm over a mountainous complex terrain industrial area23.

TAPM also simulated well the surface wind tốc độ in the study area, with the mean values of both predicted và observed wind speed were approximate 2 m/s during the study period. However, it slightly overestimated the wind speed comparing with observed value & with 0.4 and 0.7 m/s difference in February & June, respectively, which were the same ranges as those in Matthaios’s study23.

Performance of Air chất lượng model - CTM

The simulation results of air unique from the CTM model were validated with observed values at 03 locations: the University of Natural Science located at 227 Nguyen Van Cu street (10.762549oN, 106.682428oE) in HCMC, the chảy Binh industrial Zone (10.804863oN, 106.637664oE) & Linh Trung Exporting Zone (10.855993oN, 106.799454oE). Figure 3 and Table 3 present the performance of SO2, NO2, và O3 from 12th to 17th June 172017.


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Predicted và observed air chất lượng at Nguyen Van Cu station from 12 to lớn 17 June 2017: (a) Time series of observed và predicted SO2 concentration; (b) Regression analysis of observed (x-axis) & predicted (y-axis) SO2 concentration; (c) Time series of observed và predicted NO2 concentration; (d)) Regression analysis of observed (x-axis) and predicted (y-axis) NO2 concentration; (e) Time series of observed & predicted O3 concentration; (b) Regression analysis of observed (x-axis) & predicted (y-axis) O3 concentration.


Figure 3 and Table 3 show that the model predicted quite well the air chất lượng with the correlations (R2) between hourly concentrations of predicted và those of observed values were always nearly 0.7 for the fist location at the University of Natural Science, for the second & third locations have the correlations (R2) between hourly concentrations of predicted và those of observed values were higher than 0.7. When considering the time series of observed and predicted pollutant concentration, simulation results tend to be similar lớn actual monitoring results with maximum & minimum values. The mã sản phẩm predicted well the concentration of SO2 & NO2 with 1.0 and 1.1 µg/m3 difference, respectively. However, CTM slightly overestimated the concentration of O3. This result was different from that of Bang’s study about the simulation of O3 in HCMC in năm ngoái (the research in 2015, air emission inventory results were used from top-down approach, therefore the results of modeling in năm ngoái have more uncertainty than the current research using detail air emission inventory), in which the authors found that the model overall underpredicted the ozone prediction at Nguyen Van Cu site1. This difference could be understood because the period when Bang et al. Compared the observed & predicted ozone concentrations was the dry season when high pollution usually happens in HCMC1; whereas the comparison of those in this study was the wet season when the lower concentrations of pollutants are found. This indicated that the TAPM-CTM model tends to lớn underestimate the concentrations in the highly polluted periods and overestimate in the little polluted ones.

In addition, The monitoring site that we used for validation models for the metrological condition was different from that for the air pollutants. However it doesn’t affect the research because the TAPM-CTM could provide the simulation results for each point. We can select any point in our domain for meteorological and air chất lượng validation.

Simulation of air quality in HCMC

Simulation of air quality in HCMC in 2017

After evaluating the model, simulation the air chất lượng for each month in 2017 was conducted lớn determine the areas và period having a high concentration of pollutants. The simulation results included all of one-hour, eight-hour, and twenty four-hour average concentration of each pollutant, in which CO, NO2, and SO2 were the primary pollutant group & O3 was the secondary pollutant group.

The primary pollutants. The high concentrations of co are presented in Fig. 4, in which, Fig. 4a is the eight-hour average concentration in Jan 2017, Fig. 4b is the eight-hour average concentration in Oct 2017, Fig. 4c is the eight-hour average concentration in Nov 2017 & Fig. 4d is the eight-hour average concentration in Dec 2017.


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Generally, the one-hour average concentration of teo did not exceed the standard of QCVN, in which the concentrations of co from February to lớn August were relatively lower than those in remaining months. However, the eight-hour average concentrations in October, November, December, và January reached from 12,000 ppb to 14,000 ppb (about 13,560–15,820 µg/m3) exceeding QCVN (10,000 µg/m3) from 1.3 lớn 1.5 times. The highest one-hour average concentration of co was 26,000 ppb (29,380 µg/m3) in November 2017 that was approximate the standard of QCVN (30,000 µg/m3). In this day, the eight-hour average concentration of co reached 14,000 ppb (15,820 µg/m3) that was 1,5 times higher than the standard of QCVN. The highest concentration of co also was about 2 time higher than that previous studies10,11 that could be due lớn their usage of different mã sản phẩm and different EI method. The more comprehensive calculation of EI including line, area, point, and biogenic sources were conducted in our study. In which, the traffic sources consisted both on-road & non-road source having the airport, seaport, và bus và railway station, the area source included households, restaurants, gas stations, constructions sites, photocopy stores, construction material stores, pagodas, và garages1. The plume of teo was located in the center of HCMC where teo was mainly emitted1.

The high concentrations of NO2 are presented in Fig. 5, in which, Fig. 5a is the one-hour average concentration in Jan 2017, Fig. 5b is the one-hour average concentration in Oct 2017, Fig. 5c is the one-hour average concentration in Nov 2017 và Fig. 5d is the one-hour average concentration in Dec 2017.


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Similar with CO, the high one-hour average concentration of NO2 occurred in January, October, November, & December that were 135; 110; 170; and 120 ppb, respectively. The hourly concentrations of other months were from 42 to lớn 65 ppb. The highest hourly concentration of NO2 was recorded in 17th November 2017 with the value of 170 ppb (equivalent 200 µg/m3) exceeding QCVN (10,000 µg/m3) 1.5 times. The highest concentration of NO2 also was from 1.3 to 1.9 time higher than that previous studies6,8 that could be explained by using a different model and different EI method mentioned above. The plume of NO2 also located in the center of HCMC having the dense transportation system và seaport1.

The highest concentrations of SO2 are presented in Fig. 6a, in which, Fig. 6a is the one-hour average concentration in Dec 2017, Fig. 6b is the one24-hour average concentration in Dec 2017.


Generally, the all highest concentrations of SO2 was lower than the standard in QCVN, in which the highest one-hour average concentration & 24-hour average concentration was 90 and 24 ppb (equivalent 232 và 61.9 µg/m3), respectively. The highest concentration of SO2 in this study also was about 1.5 times higher than that in Dung’s study7 that was similar khổng lồ other primary pollutants above. The plume of SO2 located at district 2 and district 4 having many seaports, other urban và the suburban area was lower than 40 ppb và 25 ppb, respectively.

The secondary pollutant. The highest concentrations of ozone are presented in Fig. 7, in which, Fig. 7a is the one-hour average concentration & Fig. 7b is the eight-hour average concentration.


The high hourly ozone concentrations were from 53 lớn 110 ppb, in which the concentrations in the last months of the year were higher than those of the first months. The highest concentrations were recorded in 13th December 2017 that was the beginning of the dry season. The one-hour average concentration of ozone reached 110 ppb (equivalent lớn 220 µg/m3) exceeding about 1.1 times of the National technical regulation in ambient air unique standard (QCVN). The eight-hour average concentration of ozone also was recorded in this day with the value of 62 ppb (equivalent to lớn 124 µg/m3) that was higher than that in QCVN (120 µg/m3). The ozone plume tended lớn move southwestward of the city, only a few times in May và August, the plume pushed khổng lồ the northwest or northeast of HCMC. The results of ozone simulation in this study were compared with those in other studies presented in Table 4.


Table 4 shows that the dominant plume pattern of ozone in this study was similar lớn that in other studies; however, there was a difference in the maximum concentration of ozone in these studies. The maximum concentration in this study was about 2 times higher than that in other studies except for Bang’s study in 2011. This difference could be explained by using different models and input data explained above.

Air pollution forecast for Ho đưa ra Minh city in 2025 & 2030

Based on the data of strategies and plans for socio-economic development of HCMC in the period 2025 và 2030, the simulations of air chất lượng for 2025 and 2030 were conducted in order khổng lồ forecast how the future growth impact khổng lồ the air quality.

For the year of 2025, if HCMC continues to develop the socio-economic plan, the air unique will become worse. The one-hour & eight -hour average concentration of ozone will be 230 µg/m3 và 144 µg/m3 exceeding the standard of QCVN 1.15 & 1.20 times, respectively. The one-hour and eight -hour average concentration of teo will reach 31,640 µg/m3 and 18,080 µg/m3 exceeding the standard of QCVN 1.05 và 1.80 times, respectively. The one-hour average concentration of NO2 also will be 297 µg/m3 exceeding the standard of QCVN 1.50 times. Only SO2 concentration will meet the QCVN standard.

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According khổng lồ the development plan of HCMC by 2030, the air pollution situation will become more serious. The one-hour & eight-hour average concentration of CO và O3 will be 1.7 and 1.15 times higher than the standard of QCVN, respectively. The highest hourly concentration of NO2 will reach 180 ppb (equivalent 334 µg/m3) exceeding the QCVN 1.57 times. Especially, the highest hourly concentration of SO2 also will be 1.02 times higher QCVN.

Loading capacities of air emissions in HCMC

It is obvious that if HCMC does not have a good plan lớn develop the social & economics, the air pollution situation in this thành phố will become worse. Determining the pollutant loading capacities for each small area could help policy-makers to improve efficiency in building the abatement strategies. Therefore, in this study, we initially studied the emission zoning (or loading capactities) for HCMC. From the simulation results of air quality above, areas were zoned by comparing with the QCVN. For areas with lower concentrations than QCVN, we increased the emission for each grid until to lớn meet the standard. For areas with higher than QCVN, we reduced the emission for each grid until to lớn meet the standard. In the calculation process, we also took into account the long-range transport based on the meteorological simulation results. For example, if the polluted area (A) was caused by emissions from the neighboring area (B), the B area would be diminished the emissions to reduce pollutant concentration at A area. We also considered the ability lớn increase emissions at A to determine whether the pollutant concentration in this area to lớn increase or not.

After calculating & simulating, we found that in order khổng lồ control the air quality to meet the standard of QCVN, HCMC needs to reduce emissions for NO2 and CO 1.58 times, equivalent khổng lồ 58%. Beside, HCMC also has the ability to lớn receive 1.51 times of additional SO2 emissions, equivalent 51% in the future khổng lồ ensure that the SO2 concentration will meet the standards.

The emission zoning of each pollutant are presented in Fig. 8, in which, Fig. 8a is the emission zoning of CO, Fig. 8b is the emission zoning of NO2, and Fig. 8c is the emission zoning of SO2.


For CO, it is necessary khổng lồ reduce emissions in the central districts và the northern, the western suburban districts. Specifically, the areas that need to reduce the most co emission are District 10, District 11, District 5, District 6 and District 8, which require a reduction of 5,500–8,000 tons/year.km−2; tung Binh & Tan Phu districts need to lớn reduce 3,000 lớn 5,500 tons/year.km−2; District 7, District 4, District 1, District 3, Phu Nhuan District Cu Chi, Hoc Mon, Binh Chanh & Binh Tan, & Go Vap are necessary to lớn reduce emissions by 3,000 tons/year.km−2. The districts could receive additional teo emissions as follows: District 12 might increase 2,100 tons/year.km−2, Binh Thanh, District 2, Nha Be could increase khổng lồ 7,200 tons/year.km−2, Thu Duc & District 9 might increase by 9,800 tons/year.km−2, và Can Gio area could increase khổng lồ 17,500 tons CO/year.km−2. However, Can Gio is the city’s biological reserve area; therefore, the emission addition should be considered.

For NOx, the western areas of the thành phố including District 8, Binh Tan and Binh Chanh need khổng lồ be reduced from 46–86 tons/year.km−2; District 10, District 3, District 5, District 6, District 11, tung Phu, chảy Binh, Go Vap, District 12, và Hoocmon need lớn reduce from 3 to 45 tons/year.km−2. The remaining areas can receive NOx additional emissions with the amount of 45–500 tons/year.km−2, in which Cu Chi và District 9 are the two areas that can receive more NOx emission. The maximum possible cấp độ of these areas could be reached about 500–786 tons/year.km−2.

Generally, SO2 concentration is lower than the standard of QCVN; therefore, SO2 could be added khổng lồ the atmosphere as follows: areas of downtown districts such as Districts 1, District 3, District 4, District 10, District 5, District 8, District 2 could be increased about 71–96 tons/year.km−2; District 7, Phu Nhuan, District 11, & District 6 might add 97–155 tons/year.km−2; the suburban districts could receive from 156 to lớn 545 tons/year.km−2; Can Gio might receive the largest amount of SO2 being from 546–1,002 tons/year.km−2.

For VOCs, the current emission was maintained because VOCs relate lớn O3 generation reactions. With the current scenario, the highest O3 concentration already exceeded QCVN. After simulating the NOx reduction scenario by keeping the VOCs emission, the O3 concentration also reduced to meet the standard. Therefore, it is not advisable to địa chỉ cửa hàng VOC’s emission to the central districts & the western districts of HCMC because these areas had eight-hour average concentration that approximates the QCVN.

In general, the central areas of HCMC need to lớn reduce half emissions. The city’s government need to lớn consider reducing the number of private vehicles in the thành phố because this is the main source of air1. The areas of Binh Chanh và Binh tan districts have lower emissions than the central areas. However, these areas are influenced by the pollutant plumes from the center due khổng lồ the wind from the East Sea. In November & December, this area often has higher concentrations of pollutants exceeding the QCVN. In contrast, the air polluatants in Thu Duc và District 9 could transport khổng lồ the downwind sector because of wind from the East Sea could blow pollutant plumes from these areas khổng lồ the west và northwest of the city. Therefore, HCMC city should restricted industrial & urban development in the these areas in term of emission control. If it is necessary to choose one area for development, the downwind sector is preferred. Can Gio area is the place with the lowest pollutant concentration and has the ability to receive the highest emissions. However, this area is the biosphere reserve of the city. Therefore, this area should be kept the status without developing the urbanization and industry. This research did not take into trương mục the transboundary transportation of air pollutants. The further studies including both the local và long-range sources need to lớn be considered lớn get the more realistic simulation results of air unique in HCMC.


An air chất lượng simulation for CO, NO2, SO2, & O3 over HCMC was conducted in this paper by using the TAPM-CTM model. Overall, the simulation for air chất lượng performed reasonably well in predicting the pollutant levels in 2017. Based on the simulation results of the current status of air quality, it is obvious that the period of high pollution usually is in the last months of the year. This time is the late of the rainy season with low rainfall & the weather is unfavorable lớn diffuse pollutants, resulting in the highest one-hour average concentration for NO2 & O3, the highest eight-hour average concentration for teo exceeding the standard of QCVN 1.5, 1.1, & 1.5 times, respectively. Only the concentration of SO2 was lower than the standard.

The air unique forecasts for HCMC by 2025 và 2030 also were simulated based on the data of strategies & plans for socio-economic development of the city. The results showed that both the highest one-hour và eight-hour average concentration of O3, CO, & NO2 were higher than QCVN by the year 2025 and 2030. Especially, if HCMC continues to develop the socio-economic plan, the highest hourly concentration of SO2 also will be 1.02 times higher QCVN by the year of 2030.

The emission zoning were initially studied by calculating and simulating the loading capacities of each pollutant. Generally, the downtown HCMC need to reduce about half of emission; therefore, city authorities should consider stopping the development of industry & urbanization of this area. In addition, it is necessary to lớn reduce the number of private vehicles in this area because this is the main source of pollution. The eastern areas of the thành phố also need khổng lồ limit the development of industry and urbanization due lớn the wind from the East Sea blows the pollutants lớn the west and the north. In the case of necessity to choose one area for development, the downwind sector is preferred. We also proposed keeping the status of Can Gio area although this area could receive more additional emission because Can Gio is the biosphere reserve of the đô thị in particular và of the country in general.


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Contributions

Prof. Bang Quoc Ho contributes as coordinator for whole research. MSc. Khue Hoang Ngoc Vu contributes to lớn simulate air unique in 2017. MSc. Tam Thoai Nguyen contributes to lớn simulate air quality in 2025. MSc. Hang Thi Thuy Nguyen contributes lớn simulate air chất lượng in 2030. Dr. Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen contributes lớn coordinator the air chất lượng group to prepare this manuscript and Dr. Nguyen Nhu Hien & Dr. Dung Minh Ho contributes lớn prepare the air emission input đầu vào files for air quality simulations.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence lớn Bang Quoc Ho or Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen.